Mark Landler, AFP
COLOGNE: In a city with the greatest Gothic cathedral in Germany, and no fewer than a dozen Romanesque churches, adding a pair of fluted minarets would scarcely alter the skyline. Yet plans for a new mosque are rattling this ancient city to its foundations.
The cityâ€™s Muslim population, made up mostly of Turks, is pushing for approval to build what would be one of Germanyâ€™s largest mosques, in a working-class district across town from the cathedralâ€™s mighty spires.
Predictably, an extreme-right local political party has waged a noisy, xenophobic protest campaign, drumming up support from its far-right allies in Austria and Belgium.
But the proposal has also drawn fierce criticism from a respected German-Jewish writer, Ralph
Giordano, who said the mosque would be â€œan expression of the creeping Islamization of our land.â€ He does not want to see women shrouded in veils on German streets, he said.
Giordanoâ€™s charged remarks, first made at a public forum here last month, have catapulted this local dispute into a national debate in Germany over how a secular society, with Christian roots, should accommodate the religious yearnings of its Muslim minority.
Mosques have risen in recent years in Berlin, Mannheim and Duisberg, each time provoking hand-wringing among some residents. But the dispute in Cologne, a city Pope Benedict XVI once called the Rome of the north, seems deeper and more far-reaching.
While Turkey itself is debating the role of Islam in its political life, Germans are starting to ask how – even if – the 2.7 million people of Turkish descent here can square their religious and cultural beliefs with a pluralistic society that enshrines the rights of women.
Giordano, a Holocaust survivor, has been sharply criticized, including by fellow Jews, and has received death threats. But others said he was giving voice to Germans, who for reasons of their past, are reluctant to express misgivings about the rise of Islam in their midst.
â€œWe have a common historical background that makes us overly cautious in dealing with these issues,â€ said the mayor of Cologne, Fritz Schramma, who supports the mosque but is not without his qualms.
â€œFor me, it is self-evident that the Muslims need to have a prestigious place of worship,â€ said Schramma, of the center-right Christian Democratic Union. â€œBut it bothers me when people have lived here for 35 years and they donâ€™t speak a single word of German.â€
Cologneâ€™s Roman Catholic leader, Cardinal Joachim Meisner, is similarly ambivalent. Asked in a radio interview if he was afraid of the mosque, he said, â€œI donâ€™t want to say Iâ€™m afraid, but I have an uneasy feeling.â€
Those statements rankle German-Turkish leaders, who have been working with the city since 2001 to build a mosque on the site of a converted drug factory, which now houses a far smaller mosque, a community center and the offices of the Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs.
â€œThe 120,000 Muslims of Cologne donâ€™t have a single place they can point to with pride as the symbol of our faith,â€ said Bekir Alboga, leader of interreligious dialogue at the union, which is known as Ditib. â€œChristians have their churches, Jews have their synagogues.â€
Alboga, a 44-year-old Turkish imam who immigrated here at 18 and speaks rapid-fire German, said the mosque would be a â€œcrowning moment for religious tolerance.â€ Given Germanyâ€™s dark history, he added, â€œGerman politicians need to be careful about what they say.â€
Alboga said he was particularly dismayed by Meisner, because the Catholic Church, along with Germanyâ€™s Protestant churches, has long supported the mosque. Ditib, he said, is a moderate organization that acts as a â€œbulwark against radicalism and terrorism.â€ It plans to finance the project, which will cost more than $20 million, entirely through donations.
The group must obtain a building permit before it can break ground, but Alboga said he was confident the mosque would not be blocked. Ditib has agreed to various stipulations, including a ban on broadcasting the call to prayer over loudspeakers outside the building.
Public opinion about the project seems guardedly supportive, with a majority of residents saying they favor it, although more than a quarter want its size to be reduced. The polls, taken for a local newspaper, use small samples, 500 people, limiting their usefulness as a gauge of popular sentiment in city of one million.
Cologne, with one of the largest Muslim populations of any German city, already has nearly 30 mosques. Most are in converted factories or warehouses, often tucked away in hidden courtyards, which has contributed to a sense that Muslims in Germany can worship only furtively.
The new mosque would put Islam in plain sight – all the more so because the design calls for a domed building with glass walls. Showing off a model, designed by a German architect who specializes in churches, Alboga said, â€œOur hearts are open, our doors are open, our mosque is open.â€
In some ways, the mosque seems calculated to avoid touching nerves. It would not be built near a church or loom over its neighbors, like the new mosque in Duisberg. It would be flanked by multistory office buildings and a giant television tower, which would dwarf its minarets.
Yet the Turkish community has run into fervent and organized opposition. The far-right party, Pro Cologne, which holds five of the 90 seats in the city council, collected 23,000 signatures on a petition demanding the halting of the project. The city said only 15,000 of them were genuine.
On June 16, Pro Cologne mobilized 200 people at a rally to protest the mosque. Among those on hand were the leaders of Austriaâ€™s Freedom Party, which was founded by JÃ¶rg Haider, and the extremist party Vlaams Belang, or Flemish Interest, from Antwerp. Both advocate the deportation of immigrants.
Cologneâ€™s deputy mayor, Elfi Scho-Antwerpes, a Social Democrat, appeared with Turkish leaders at a counter-demonstration across the street. Schramma, she noted, did not show up.
Giordano, the German-Jewish writer, said Germany needed to face the fact that, after three generations of Turkish immigration, efforts to integrate that minority had failed. Immigrants, he said, sought the privileges of membership in German society but refused to bear the obligations.
Germanyâ€™s â€œfalse tolerance,â€ he asserted, enabled the Sept. 11 hijackers to use Hamburg as a haven in which to hatch their terrorist plot. Cologne, too, has struggled with radical Islamic figures, most notably Metin Kaplan, a militant Turkish cleric known as the Caliph of Cologne.
â€œI donâ€™t want to see women on the street wearing burqas,â€ Giordano said. â€œIâ€™m insulted by that – not by the women themselves, but by the people who turned them into human penguins.â€
Such blunt language troubles other German Jews, who say a victim of religious persecution should not take a swipe at another religious minority.
Henryk Broder, a Jewish journalist who is a friend of Giordanoâ€™s, said he should have avoided the phrase â€œhuman penguins.â€
But Broder said the underlying message was valid, and that Giordanoâ€™s stature as a writer gives him the standing to say it. â€œA mosque is more than a church or a synagogue,â€ he said. â€œIt is a political statement.â€