Adapted by TMO from an article by Amie Ferris-Rotman, Reuters
â€œChechnya is Muslim, so this is our right as men. They (the wives) spend time together, but do not always see eye to eye,â€ said the soft-spoken pensioner, who only gave his first name.
Hardline Kremlin-backed leader Ramzan Kadyrov is vying with insurgents for authority in a land ravaged by two secessionist wars with Moscow. Each side is claiming Islam as its flag of legitimacy, each reviles the other as criminal and blasphemous.
Wary of the dangers of separatism in a vast country, Moscow watches uneasily as central power yields to Islamic tenets. It must choose what it might see as the lesser of two evils.
Though polygamy is illegal in Russia, the region of Chechnya encourages the practice, arguing it is allowed by Shariâ€™a law and the Koran, Islamâ€™s holy book.
By Russian law, Adam is only married to his first wife of 28 years, Zoya, the plump, blue-eyed mother of his three children, with whom he shares a home on the outskirts of the regional capital Grozny.
His marriages to the other two — squirreled away in villages nearby — were carried out in elaborate celebrations and are recognized by Chechen authorities.
The head of Chechnyaâ€™s Center for Spiritual-Moral Education, Vakha Khashkanov, set up by Kadyrov a year ago, said Islam should take priority over laws of the Russian constitution.
â€œIf it is allowed in Islam, it is not up for discussion,â€ he told Reuters near Europeâ€™s largest mosque, which glistens in central Grozny atop the grounds where the Communist party had its headquarters before the Soviet Union fell in 1991.
â€œAs long as you can feed your wives, and thereâ€™s equality amongst them, then polygamy is allowed in Chechnya,â€ he added.
Islam is flourishing in Chechnya which, along with its neighbors Dagestan and Ingushetia, is combating an Islamist insurgency which aims to create a Muslim, Shariâ€™ah-based state separate from Russia across the North Caucasus.
Though Islam first arrived in the North Caucasus around 500 years ago, in Dagestanâ€™s ancient walled city of Derbent on the Caspian Sea, religion under Communism was strongly discouraged.
Kadyrov, like most of his regionâ€™s one million people, is Sufi, a mystical branch of Islam which places a greater focus on prayer and recitation.
Political analysts say that in exchange for successfully hunting out Islamist fighters, the Kremlin turns a blind eye to Kadyrovâ€™s Muslim-inspired rules.
Today Groznyâ€™s cafes hold men sipping smuggled beer out of teacups as alcohol has been all but banned, single-sex schools and gyms are becoming the norm and women must cover their heads in government buildings.
Clad in a tight hijab, Asya Malsagova, who advises Kadyrov on human rights issues and heads a state council dealing with the rights of Chechen prisoners, told Reuters: â€œWe believe every woman should have a choice — but we prefer she covers up.â€
Animals are also being used to reintroduce Islam at Chechnyaâ€™s round-the-clock Muslim television channel, where 60 young bearded men and headscarved women create childrenâ€™s programs in large studios adorned with photos of Mecca.
A bevy of bumble bees joyfully scream â€œSalam Alaikumâ€ (Peace be with you) upon entering the studio of Ruslan Ismailov, who is making a full-length cartoon on hi-tech Apple computers for the channel, which is called â€œPut,â€ meaning â€œThe Wayâ€ in Russian.
â€œThe bees appeal to children, and they will teach them how to live properly by the Muslim faith,â€ Ismailov said.
Set up two years ago by the state and broadcast to thousands across the North Caucasus, instantly becoming one of the top channels in the region, it also features programs for women on how to keep home and reading Qur`an throughout the night.
â€œItâ€™s no secret what Chechnya has been through,â€ said the channelâ€™s general director Adam Shakhidov, sporting a ginger beard and traditional black velvet cap.
â€œTwo wars, the Soviet Union and todayâ€™s Muslim extremism… itâ€™s time to show the true beauty of Sufism and install the basis for Shariâ€™ah,â€ he said.