By Sebnem Arsu
ANKARA, Turkey â€” The Turkish government said it would return hundreds of properties that were confiscated from religious minorities by the state or other parties over the years since 1936, and would pay compensation for properties that were seized and later sold.
Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan made the announcement on Sunday to representatives of more than 150 Christian and Jewish trusts gathered at a dinner he hosted in Istanbul to break the dayâ€™s Ramadan fast. The government decree to return the properties, bypassing nationalist opposition in Parliament, was issued late Saturday.
The European Union, which Turkey has applied to join, has pressed the country to ease or eliminate laws and policies that discriminate against non-Muslim religious groups, including restrictions on land ownership. Many of the properties, including schools, hospitals, orphanages and cemeteries, were seized after 1936 when trusts were called to list their assets, and in 1974 a separate ruling banned the groups from purchasing any new real estate.
Disputes over the groupsâ€™ properties have tied up Turkish and European courts for decades, and the European Court for Human Rights has ordered Turkey to pay compensation in several cases related to religious minority rights in recent years.
â€œLike everyone else, we also do know about the injustices that different religious groups have been subjected to because of their differences,â€ Mr. Erdogan said at the dinner, according to the semiofficial Anatolian News Agency. â€œTimes that a citizen of ours would be oppressed due to his religion, ethnic origin or different way of life are over.â€
In contrast with its staunchly secular predecessors, the Islam-inspired government of Mr. Erdoganâ€™s Justice and Development Party, known as A.K.P., has been more sympathetic and attentive to Turkeyâ€™s non-Muslims, including Jews and Christians. It has enacted a number of measures since 2002 to bring Turkish law more into compliance with European Union standards on minority rights, so that Turkeyâ€™s application to join the union could advance.
The decree issued on Saturday removed legal impediments that had continued to block the return of the properties even after amendments were enacted in recent years to allow it.
â€œThere have been changes made to existent legislation at least five times since the government of the A.K. Party, but they have not been very satisfactory in practice,â€ said a Greek government official who asked not to be identified because of his diplomatic position. â€œWe hope this time the changes would make a real difference in implementation.â€
Less than 1 percent of Turkeyâ€™s 74 million people belong to religious minorities; there are about 120,000 Christians of different denominations, including Greek Orthodox, and about 25,000 Jews.
A version of this article appeared in print on August 29, 2011, on page A4 of the New York edition with the headline: Turkish Government to Return Seized Property to Religious Minorities.