Foreign Policy: Why Can’t the Syrian Opposition Get Along?

By Kate Seeyle

Kate Seelye is Vice President of the Middle East Institute. Prior to joining MEI, she worked as a radio and television journalist covering the Arab world from her base in Beirut, Lebanon.

The buoyant images of Libya’s rebels, who are currently tearing down the last vestiges of Moammar Gadhafi’s regime, have also underscored the challenges facing the fragmented opposition in another Arab country — Syria. Five months after the start of an uprising against President Bashar Assad that has left more than 2,200 people dead, dissidents are still struggling to forge a united front that could duplicate the role played by Libya’s Transitional National Council (TNC).

The TNC was created just 12 days after the start of the Libyan uprising, quickly organizing resistance to Gadhafi within the country and lobbying for support on the international stage. By contrast, the opponents of Assad’s regime have held gatherings in Antalya, Turkey; Brussels; Istanbul; and even Damascus, the Syrian capital, to shape the opposition’s leadership and articulate a road map toward a democratic Syria. But as of yet, Syrian activists in the diaspora have failed to establish an umbrella group that has earned the endorsement of the only body that can confer legitimacy — the protest organizers inside Syria.

Although Assad’s brutal crackdown has undoubtedly made this a difficult task, the absence of a united front has hindered the opposition’s ability to effectively communicate to regime-change skeptics that there is a credible alternative to the Assad government.
The disarray in the anti-Assad camp is recognized all too well in Washington. “I think the [international] pressure requires an organized opposition, and there isn’t one,” said Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, when asked on Aug. 11 why the United States didn’t throw more weight behind the protest movement. “There’s no address for the opposition. There is no place that any of us who wish to assist can go.”
Given the lack of a recognized leadership, different Syrian groups — mainly based in the diaspora — have been jockeying to assert themselves. Most recently, on Aug. 29 young dissidents speaking on behalf of a revolutionary youth group inside Syria named a 94-person council to represent the Syrian opposition. At a news conference in Ankara, Turkey, Syrian dissident Ziyaeddin Dolmus announced that the respected Paris-based academic Burhan Ghalioun would head the so-called Syrian National Council, which would also comprise the crème de la crème of Syria’s traditional opposition.

Dolmus said the council would include many of the traditional opposition figures based in Damascus, such as former parliamentarian Riad Seif, activist Suhair Atassi, and economist Aref Dalila. “Delays [in forming a council] return our people to bloodshed,” he said at the news conference, which was broadcast by Al-Jazeera.
But no sooner had the council been announced than it started to unravel. When contacted by the media, Ghalioun and the others quickly distanced themselves from the announcement, claiming they had no prior knowledge of it, according to reports in the Arabic press. Later, Ghalioun denied any association with the group on his Facebook page.
One Washington-based Syrian activist, Mohammad al-Abdallah — whose father, Ali al-Abdallah was named to the council — dismissed it as a joke.
Others said it was an attempt by young revolutionaries, upset over the lack of progress, to put forward a wish list of opposition members.
U.S.-based Syrian activist Yaser Tabbara, who had helped organize a gathering of anti-government Syrians a week before in Istanbul, called it “an earnest attempt by youth to reach out and demand that we move faster than we have been.”
According to Tabbara, the Istanbul conference that concluded on Aug. 23, was motivated by a similar sense of urgency. “It has been five months since the uprising started, and we don’t yet have a U.N. Security Council resolution condemning Assad and his cohorts for their massacres,” said Tabbara. “Part of the reason is that some in the international community, like India, Brazil, and South Africa, do not see a viable alternative to this regime.”
The four-day Istanbul gathering, according to organizers, sought to unite all the efforts of previous opposition efforts under one banner.
Few of the groups or individuals from previous opposition gatherings attended the meeting, however. Members representing a consultative committee that emerged from a June opposition gathering in Antalya withdrew at the last minute, claiming, according to Reuters, that it “did not build on earlier efforts to unite the opposition.”
The conference was further handicapped by what Syrian journalist Tammam al-Barazi called “the perception that it was held under an American umbrella.” Its organizers included members of a grassroots community group based in Illinois, the Syrian American Council.
Although dismaying, the opposition’s divisions and sniping are hardly surprising. Most activists grew up under the Assad family’s authoritarian rule, and their differences reflect the many divisions inside Syrian society, which is split by sect and ethnicity as well as ideology. The opposition includes Arab nationalists and liberals with little trust for the Muslim Brotherhood, whose supporters were accused of dominating the first Istanbul conference organized in July by a leading human rights lawyer, Haitham al-Maleh.

Dr. Mahmoud Hessaby

By Syed Aslam

hesabiDr. Mahmoud Hessaby was born in Tehran  in 1903. His family  moved to Beirut, Lebanon  in 1907.  He received religious instructions and studied Persian literature from his devoted and learned mother.  Memorized the Holly Qur’an by heart at an early age and read the great poetry of Hafez, Sa’adi and Ferdowsi when he was just a teenager.

After completing his high school  he  chose American College of Beirut, graduating with a bachelor’s degree of  Science. He continued his studies in Civil Engineering and after receiving his degree he studied Mathematics  Astronomy and Physics. He moved to France and worked   for  French National Railway. Continued his research in Physics and received his PhD  at the age of 25 from  Sorbonne University, France   After completing his PhD returned back to Iran. Dr. Hessaby was polymath, he studied different fields and continued lecturing at University of Tehran for three working generations. He died in the year 1992  at Geneva, Switzerland  and is buried in Tafresh, Iran.

What makes him a great mind is his well-known theory of “Infinitely extended particles”.   Dr Hessaby met with Dr Albert Einstein and he was the only Iranian who closely worked with  him.  He researched on his theory in Princeton, Chicago and preformed many different experiments to verify his theory. He published the results of his research in 1946 at Princeton University. His theory “Infinitely extended particles” is well known among scientists.  Einstein once said about him that “One day he will change the direction of physics”. In 1973 the medal of “Commandeur de la Legion”, France’s greatest scientific medal was awarded to him for his great theory. One of the great things he did was the modification of Newton’s law of gravity and Columbus’ law.  In the field of Modern Physics he published 23 research papers and many  books which include, Electrodynamics, Electric Eye, Viewpoint in Physics, Magnetic Eye, Solid State Physics and Quantum View.

Dr. Hessaby can be considered a great mind because of his endless desire for knowledge that led him to study and master several fields of science.  He studied and researched in different subjects and was able to make great contributions in most of them.  He also taught different subjects at various universities and gave new and interesting ideas in each of them. Dr Hessaby was a great person both in the history of the science and for the modernization of his country, Iran.   He knew eleven different languages, such as Persian, English, French, Arabic, German, Italian and Greek. 

What makes Dr Hessaby unique is the numerous services he rendered for his country, such as establishment of Tehran University, the teachers collage, the first meteorological station and radiological center. He also founded the space research center, the geophysics institute and the satellite tracking observatory center of Iran. It is interesting to know that Dr Hessaby also mastered Persian literature, played piano and violin and established the first Iranian institute of music. Dr Hessaby’s life, his struggles, his tireless and intense interest in the quest of science as well as his deep interest in teaching the youth, and his commitment to the scientific progress of his country provides a living example and model for the students of science all over the world.

A museum has been established by his family, colleagues and students in order to value his 60 years of scientific, educational and cultural activities.