By Geoffrey Cook, MMNS
Los Angelesâ€”April 10thâ€”Ashok C. Shukla, an independent scholar, who has written and edited several books on South Asian security issues that are largely available in India, but, unfortunately, too often have to be imported from there into North America. He has been commissioned by an editor to compose a chapter on energy security in the environs for as yet unnamed publisher.
Most of the presentation was on the problematic future transport of oil and gas across Pakistan into India. Yet, the crucial issue of water came up early. With todayâ€™s political situation, fresh water is problematical there, too — competitive to say the least. The Ganges-Brahmaputra basin provides the fresh water or part of it for all but two of the areaâ€™s nations. This probably supplies a billion people with their drinkable supply of water. The competition between India and Pakistan is a volatile one, and most likely will not terminate itself to the satisfaction of all parties anytime soon. At the very worse it could become a trigger for thermo-nuclear war between the two military giants within Southern Asia that could destroy hundreds of millions of people along with its ancient civilization!
(Also, not as pressing, towards the east, there have been unsubstantiated accusations that India has been skimming off part of Bangladeshâ€™s aquifer.)
As has been intimated, Dr. Shuklaâ€™s chapter will examine the energy insecurity of the remarkably expanding economy of India. (Since this is the Muslim Observer, although Bharat (Indiaâ€™s) population is only 12% Islamic [about the same percentage as Afro-Americans in the United States], it has the second highest Islamic national numbers in the world. In Pakistan, 98% of the country is Muslim; Afghanistan, who potentially could play a role in the transportation of oil and gas to the Subcontinent, is circa 99%. Bangladesh is an Islamic State Constitutionally along with substantial non-Muslim minorities, though; and most of the new raw energy-rich former Soviet Republics are (Socialist) secularized Islamic States currently rediscovering their Islamic roots. (Your essayist wishes to point to the veracity of the Islamic political issues of the discussion which were not considered by Mr. Shukla.)
Both India and Pakistan are important to the interests of Washington because of the economic rise of New Delhi and the strategic military significance of Rawalpindi. Also, within, South Asia, there are overbearing ecological issues impacting the entire globe. India desperately, requires propulsion sources for their spectacularly expanding industries which resides in raw form in Central Asia and Iran, but Islamabad (and to a lesser extent Afghanistan) holds the key transit routes for the necessary pipelines. The bad feeling between Indo-Pakistan means that in any crisis the Pakistanis have the capability to turn off the valves bringing Indiaâ€™s burgeoning economy to a halt. Further, the United States is against India buying Iranian gas which would, also, transverse Pakistan. (This goes back to our bad relations with the Persians which probably will turn out to be temporary anyway.) The United States is pressing for the pipelines to go through Turkestan. Nevertheless, added to American opposition, New Delhi does not accept Pakistanâ€™s terms to permit a pipeline from Tehran.)
Whatever, SAARC (the South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation) will not involve itself in political matters between India and Pakistan by the very nature of its charter (it is only an economic organization), and, thus, will not intervene in bi-lateral matters. (For this reason, it lacks relevance as a prospective influential territorial negotiator on dangerous political issues over the vastness of the geographical extent of the Indic sphere.
Ashok C. Shukla ended his proposed chapter with the statement that South Asia totally lacks energy security.
(Your reporter pointed to the fact that Bangladesh, one of the poorest countries in the world, may be sitting on a sea of gas. Although a Muslim country it is friendly to India [as is Iran and the Central Asian Republics]. One of the reasons that the gas fields have not been developed is that the technology to liquefy the gaseous energy has not been perfected yet in large enough quantities to ship it to the West and China on ships. It would make sense, though, to send it to India through pipes, and that would solve the energy security issue for New Delhi, and, further, it would help with the ecological problem since the Republic of India depends on coal for its industrial expansion, and natural gas is much, much cleaner burning).
Dr. Shukla rejected this due to Bangladeshâ€™s nationalistic sensibilities (which your writer finds it hard to believe, for the East Bengals badly require foreign exchange, and their gas could make them as rich as some of the Middle East oil giants! )